Mariya Aleksandrovna Mamontova (Мария Александрова Мамонтова) (b. 1845; d. 1904), born Mariya Aleksandrova Lyalina Мария Александрова Лялина), was the wife of Anatoly Ivanovich Mamontov (1839–1905), a Russian publisher, translator and art collector.
In 1872 she asked Tchaikovsky for assistance in editing her compilation of Children's Songs on Russian and Ukrainian Tunes (Детские песнии на русские и малороссийские напевы). The composer harmonized and edited the first set of 24 songs in 1872, and reluctantly agreed to work on a second set of 15 songs in 1877 (which he subsequently lost). When she asked for his assistance with a third set in 1878 Tchaikovsky flatly refused, and later sought (unsuccessfully) to have his name removed from the published score of the first set.