He studied under John Field (1782–1837), and taught many eminent pupils himself, including Mily Balakirev, Nikolay Kashkin and Herman Laroche. From 1866 to 1872 he served as professor of piano at the Moscow Conservatory, working alongside Tchaikovsky. As well as composing numerous small piano pieces and romances, he published an important collection of folksongs, and a book on The Technique of Piano Playing (Техника фортепианной игры).
Tchaikovsky made three arrangements of works by Aleksandr Dubuque.
- Maria-Dagmar Polka (1866) — an orchestral arrangement of Dubuque's polka for solo piano
- I Remember All (1866-67?) — an arrangement for piano duet, after Dubuque's solo piano transcription (Romance de Tarnowsky) of a song by Yelizaveta Tarnovskaya
- Love, Until You Can Love (1868-70?) — an arrangement for piano of Dubuque's romance (1868).
In 1870 Tchaikovsky dedicated a piano piece to Dubuque:
- Mazurka de Salon — No. 3 of Three Pieces, Op. 9.